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Query Parameters


Pagination is the process of returning a large set of results in chunks (or pages) to reduce the amount of information that is sent with each request.

Pagination requires multiple query parameters to be provided, and further information about how to set this up is provided in the pagination section of this document.

Filtering and Sorting

Providing the ability to filter and sort collections in your API allows your consumers greater flexibility and controls on how they choose to consume your API.

There are number of techniques on how to do this and further explanations are provided below however DO NOT define filter and sort parameters as part of the API URI (e.g. /employees/age/from/20/to/30).

Filter parameters are not part of the resource definition. Instead use query parameters to specify the filter and sort requirements.

Below are the different techniques used when applying filtering and sorting:

Output Selection

Consumers can specify the fields they wish to return in the response payload by specifying the fields in the query parameters.

Example that returns only the first_name and last_name fields in the response.


Simple Filtering

Attributes can be used to filter a collection of resources.



will filter out the collection of resources with the attribute last_name that matches Citizen.



will filter out the collection of resources with the attribute last_name that matches Citizen and date_of_birth that matches 31st of December, 1999.

The equal (=) operator is the only supported operator when used in this technique. For other operators and conditions see the 'Advanced Filtering' technique.

Advanced Filtering

There are situations where simple filtering does not meet the needs and a more comprehensive approach is required. Use the reserved keyword 'filter' to define a more complex filtering logic.

Complex filter logic can be chained together in a single 'filter' value, using OData 4.0 query compliant query strings.

The following operators should supported at a minimum:

  1. gt - Greater than
  2. lt - Less than
  3. ge - Greater than or equal to
  4. le - Less than or equal to
  5. eq - Equal
  6. ne - Not equal

The 'and', 'or' conditions shoud be supported.


?filter=creation_date gt 2001-09-20T13:00:00 and creation_date lt 2001-09-21T13:00:00 and post_code eq 3000

Return a collection of resources where the creation_date is between 2001-09-20 1pm and 2001-09-21 1pm and post_code is 3000.

Match Case Sensitivity

As a general guide it is better to return similar matches than to return no matches at all.

The preference is to filter with case insensitivity.

Whether you choose to filter with case insensitivity or not should be clearly documented.


Providing data in specific order is often the requirement from client applications and hence it is important to provide the flexibility for clients to retrieve the data in the order they need it.

The two parameters that make up sorting are as follows:

Query Parameter Description
sort The direction to sort e.g. asc or desc
sort_fields The fields to sort by e.g. id or name

sort_fields is plural as the following options are both available:


Both of these queries should sort first by name and then by last modified date.